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Making Connections Outline
Making Connections and Original Composition Samples
Verbal irony is the use of words to mean something different from what a person actually says.
The main feature of verbal irony that sets it apart from the other different types of irony is that it is used by a speaker intentionally. It occurs in a conversation where a person aims to be understood as meaning something different to what his or her words literally mean.
Examples of verbal irony include:
“Thanks for the ticket officer you just made my day!”
“I can’t wait to read the seven hundred page report.”
The above examples show how irony is used to show someone’s frustration or disappointment.
There are two types of verbal irony:Overstatement – when a person exaggerates the character of something.
Understatement – when a person undermines the character of something.
Verbal Irony and Sarcasm. Most of the time, sarcasm and verbal irony are used interchangeably. There is however a clear distinction between the two.
In most cases, sarcasm is used to insult or to cause harm.
A statement like “Great, someone stained my new dress.” is ironic, while “You call this a work of art?” is sarcastic.
While verbal irony implies a different meaning to what is actually said, sarcasm is mainly used as a sharp and direct utterance designed to cause pain.
It involves a discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.
Situational irony occurs when the exact opposite of what is meant to happen, happens.
An example would be when someone buys a gun to protect himself, but the same gun is used by another individual to injure him. One would expect that the gun would keep him safe, but it has actually caused him injury.
There is however a difference between situational irony and coincidence or bad luck.
When someone washes his car and it rains, that is just bad luck; nothing led him or her to think that it would not rain. However, when a TV weather presenter gets caught in an unexpected storm, it is ironic because he or she is expected to know the exact weather changes.
For situational irony to occur there has to be something that leads a person to think that a particular event or situation is unlikely happen.
This type of irony is popular in works of art such as movies, books, poems and plays.
It occurs when the audience is aware of something that the characters in the story are not aware of.
An example of dramatic irony is in a movie where a detective does not know that the criminal responsible for the crimes in the city is his partner. The audience however is already aware of this fact and waits anxiously to know what will happen once the character finds out what they already know.
There are three stages of dramatic irony:
Installation – audience is informed of something the character does not know about
Exploitation – using this information to develop curiosity among the audience
Resolution – what happens when the character finally finds out what is going on?
A special category of dramatic irony is tragic irony.
Tragic irony occurs when a character in a play does or says something that communicates a meaning unknown to her but recognized by the audience.
An example of tragic irony is when a character orders poisoned food that is supposed to kill him or her and the audience already knows that the character is destined to die from food poisoning.
Tragic irony was common in plays that depicted the lives of legends in ancient Greece.
The audience already knew the fate of the characters before they watched the play.
Examples of Irony in Disney!
• Snow White’s Apple – Snow White and the Seven DwarvesThe apple that puts Snow White into a deep sleep is dramatic irony, because the audience knows that the Wicked Stepmother cursed the apple, but Snow White does not.
• Remy – RatatouilleThe very idea of having a Rat in a kitchen is gross to some people, so Disney making an ironic movie about a rat that just happens to be a master chef makes it one of the most ironic movies of all.
• Monster’s Inc.The entire plot of the movie is very ironic. Monster’s Inc. is a corporation run by monsters, their job being to scare children, when in reality they are the ones that are constantly afraid of the children.
• Numerous Fish – Finding NemoFinding Nemo best shows its irony in its characters. There’s the very unfunny clownfish, the carnivorous shark support group, and one of the funniest, the pelican being friends with the fish.
• Aladdin’s Wish to Be Rich – AladdinAladdin had three wishes from the Genie, and one of them was to be a Prince: which meant have the riches of the land. He wanted to be rich so that he could marry the Princess, Jasmine. However, Jasmine was actually repulsed by his riches and did NOT want to marry him.
• Belle and Gaston – Beauty and the Beast“I just don’t deserve you!
In the movie, Gaston wants to marry Belle, but she says that she doesn’t deserve him. In reality, the audience knows that he is the one that does not deserve her.
• Eric Looking for Love – The Little MermaidEric was saved from a shipwreck by Ariel, and she fell in love with him immediately. She asks Ursula to give her legs so that she can go find him, and has to give her voice to Ursula in return. However, without her voice, Eric does not recognize her and still searches for his love.
This act is the orientation of the play. Shakespeare introduces the characters, their relationships and the setting on which the story is based. By the end of this Act the responder is aware of the characters, their main qualities and their social context:
The Montagues and Capulets are feuding families.
Tybalt is a passionate defender of the Capulet name.
Romeo Montague is lovesick; his cousin, Benvolio, tries to console him.
Paris asks Capulet for Juliet's hand in marriage.
Romeo is convinced by Benvolio and later Mercutio to attend a party at the Capulets mansion.
Tybalt sees Romeo at the Capulet Mansion and vows revenge.
Romeo and Juliet fall in love.
Scene i: the city of Verona
The scene opens with the bawdy (rude) banter of Sampson and Gregory, servingmen of the Capulet family. They meet and begin fighting with two servants of the Montague family. Benvolio Montague and Tybalt Capulet, young men from the families, are drawn into the fighting. The heads of the families, Montague and Capulet, threaten to join the brawl and the townspeople try to stop the violence. Finally, the Prince intervenes and firmly puts a stop to the riot and demands that they keep the peace on pain of death.
Benvolio meets Romeo and tries to find out why Romeo has been behaving strangely. Romeo is in love with Rosaline but Rosaline has declined his love. Benvolio advises Romeo to forget about this love and find a new object of affection.
Important Points to note from Act I, Scene i:
There is great tension between the Capulets and the Montagues.
Tybalt is an aggressive and violent man.
The Prince has commanded the two families to keep the peace.
Romeo is a passionate young man, well liked but depressed on account of his unrequited love.
Scene ii: Verona
Capulet explains to Paris that he will endeavour to keep the peace. Paris asks for Juliet's hand in marriage. Capulet, while he thinks that Juliet is too young, invites Paris to a masquerade ball (a party where all the guests wear masks) to see if he and Juliet will fall in love.
Benvolio and Romeo intercept the invitation list for Capulet's ball. On reading that Rosaline will be attending, Benvolio insists that they go uninvited to the party. Benvolio believes that Romeo will find other women just as worthy of his love as Rosaline, and Romeo agrees because he wants to see Rosaline.
Important Points to note from Act I, Scene ii:
Paris asks for Juliet's hand from her father and without meeting her.
Juliet is very young.
Benvolio and Romeo decide to attend the ball uninvited.
Benvolio believes that when Romeo sees so many other women he will forget about Rosaline.
Scene iii: Capulet's mansion
In discussing Juliet's childhood, the Nurse reveals that Juliet is young and naive. Juliet's mother is excited at the prospect of Paris as a suitor and encourages Juliet to accept his offer.
Important Points to note from Act I, Scene iii:
The Nurse is very close to Juliet.
Juliet is very young and inexperienced.
Juliet's mother and the Nurse believe that a good marriage should improve one's status.
Juliet is obedient and practical.
Scene iv: Verona, possibly close to Capulet's mansion
Romeo, Benvolio and their close friend, Mercutio, are ready to go to the ball. Romeo is having second thoughts about attending. Mercutio teases Romeo in a friendly manner and convinces Romeo to attend the ball. As it is a masquerade ball, they should not be recognised. The scene ends with Romeo predicting that attending this ball will have dire consequences.
Important Points to note from Act I, Scene iv:
Mercutio is a very close friend of Romeo as evidenced through his ability to convince Romeo to attend the masquerade ball.
Mercutio is presented to the responder as a lovable character - his wild speeches are enthusiastic and entertaining - and also provide relief from the serious nature of the tragedy.
Romeo has a sense of foreboding (he is worried) about the consequences of attending the ball and this introduces the audience to a sense of impending tragedy.
Scene v: the masquerade ball at the Capulet mansion
Capulet verbosely welcomes the guests to the ball and implores them to have a good time. He makes many remarks that imply that this is a rather wild party (I.v.16-35). Romeo sees Juliet and immediately falls in love (42-52). Tybalt recognises Romeo and wants to start fighting. Capulet restrains Tybalt as he does not want the peace broken in his house and also because he has respect for Romeo and knows that the society sees him as a 'virtuous and well-govern'd youth' (I.v.67). Tybalt eventually obeys his uncle but vows revenge at a later date. Romeo and Juliet meet and fall in love. The scene ends with Romeo discovering with shock that Juliet is a Capulet and Juliet discovering that Romeo is a Montague.
Important Points to note from Act I, Scene v:
Romeo does find a woman that he prefers to Rosaline.
Tybalt sees Romeo and vows violent revenge.
Capulet calms him down on account that Romeo is of good character and this reaffirms to the responder Romeo's good nature.
Romeo and Juliet fall in love very quickly and easily.
The scene ends with Romeo and Juliet finding out that they are from feuding families.
5. Olivia C.
+2 bonus marks to these brave souls
I think of life as a good book. The further you get into it, the more it begins to make sense. –Harold Kushner